CONCLUSIONES Y RECOMENDACIONES XVII CONGRESO ARGENTINO DE DERECHO DEL CONSUMIDOR I ENCUENTRO NACIONAL DE PROFESORES DE DERECHO DEL CONSUMIDOR

CONCLUSIONES Y RECOMENDACIONES.

XVII CONGRESO ARGENTINO DE DERECHO DEL CONSUMIDOR

I ENCUENTRO NACIONAL DE PROFESORES DE DERECHO DEL CONSUMIDOR

En memoria al Profesor Dr. Félix A. Trigo Represas

Mar del Plata, 3 y 4 de noviembre de 2017

COMISIÓN Nº 1 Prácticas y cláusulas abusivas

Presidentes: Dres. Sandra Frustagli y Sebastián Barocelli

Coordinador: Dr. Andrés Varizat

Secretarios: Dras. María Mumare y María Paula Arias

Consideraciones comunes a ambos institutos:

  1. Los institutos de prácticas y cláusulas abusivas continuan la tradición jurídica del derecho privado en cuanto tienen como antecedente la prohibición de ejercer abusivamente los derechos.
  2. Entre las prácticas y las cláusulas abusivas existe una relación de género-especie, por ende las disposiciones referidas a las primeras resultan aplicables supletoriamente a las claúsulas abusivas.

Prácticas abusivas

  1. Las prácticas comerciales consisten en conductas desplegadas en el mercado por los proveedores de bienes y servicios, en el marco de las relaciones de consumo.
  2. El estándar de apreciación de la ilicitud de las prácticas abusivas debe contemplar la situaciones de hipervulnerabilidad de los consumidores.
  3. Las prácticas comerciales se tornan ilícitas cuando vulneran los derechos de los consumidores y usuarios, reconocidos en la Constitución Nacional y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.
  4. Constituye un supuesto de prácticas abusivas el trato discriminatorio. En ese sentido, resulta recomendable visibilizar como supuestos de trato de discriminatorio las diferencias de precios basadas en cuestiones de género.
  5. Constituye también un supuesto de práctica abusiva la publicidad que induce a conductas perjudiciales para el ambiente o consumos insustentables.
  6. Resulta recomendable que las autoridades públicas, nacionales o locales, en sus ámbitos de competencia, elaboren listados o enumeraciones no taxativas de prácticas comerciales abusivas para garantizar la efectividad de su prevención, control y sanción.
  7. Frente a prácticas comerciales ilícitas los consumidores podrán invocar la ineficacia del acto, si procediere, además de disponer de remedios de naturaleza preventiva, resarcitoria y sancionatoria.

Cláusulas abusivas:

  1. Se reafirma que la noción de cláusula abusiva se construye a partir de la idea de desequilibrio en el diseño normativo de los derechos y obligaciones de las partes en perjuicio del consumidor, independientemente de su negociación o no, provocando su ineficacia absoluta.
  2. Se reafirman las ventajas de los sistemas que centran la desestimación de las cláusulas abusivas a partir de estándares abiertos y generales, sin perjuicio de la tipificación de supuestos específicos de cláusulas que se reiteran en el mercado.
  3. En la articulación entre los sistemas de control administrativo y judicial en materia de cláusulas abusivas resulta indispensable reconocer a los fines de la eficacia de la tutela que la aprobación administrativa de las condiciones generales de la contratación no excluye el control judicial de las cláusulas abusivas.
  4. Constituyen supuestos de cláusulas abusivas que deberían prohibirse expresamente: a) la cláusula de “caducidad de plazos” por incumplimiento en las operaciones de crédito al consumo;  y b) a cláusula que faculta al proveedor a modificar unilateralmente las condiciones del contrato.

Recomendaciones finales:

  1. Se recomienda que la autoridad de aplicación de los sistemas de ahorro previo para fines determinados adopte medidas eficaces para garantizar la transparencia y combatir las prácticas y cláusulas abusivas que se reiteran en ese sector de la contratación con consumidores.
  2. Se pone de relieve la importancia de instan acciones colectivas a los fines de combatir eficazmente las prácticas y cláusulas abusivas.

Comisión N° 2 Medios alternativos y protección procesal del consumidor

Presidentes: Dres. Fernando Mumare y Alejandro Vega

Coordinador: Dr. Gonzalo Rodriguez

Secretarios: Dres. Federico Martínez Bordaisco y Lorena Bianchi

Ponentes: Esteban Carbonell O’Brien; César Carranza Álvarez; Maryuri Hortencia Suarez Tapia; Samanta Roxana Lagrutta; Cristian Rubén Luisi; Diego Andres Salvucci; Estela Alejandra Castillo Lo Bello; María Paula Arias; Gonzalo Rodriguez.

  1. Derecho a la educación del consumidor

Es necesario promover la incorporación de la asignatura derecho del consumidor en la educación media y universitaria. Instar a los gobiernos que adopten políticas públicas de concientización de los derechos de los consumidores.

  1. Autoridades de Aplicación

Se recomienda, tanto a nivel nacional como provincial, que el organismo administrativo específico para la defensa de los derechos de los consumidores, se le confiera independencia de los tres poderes estatales, dotándolo de alta jerarquía y autarquía financiera.

  1. Consumidores hipervulnerables

La hipervulnerabilidad del consumidor exige intensificar las garantías procesales contenidas en el sistema de protección de consumidores y usuarios.

  1. Daño directo

Se recomienda la adecuación de la normativa de las provincias al actual artículo 40 bis de la Ley 24.240 modificada por Ley 26.994.

  1. Función disuasoria de las sanciones administrativas

Es necesario considerar como un criterio de cuantificación de las sanciones administrativas su función disuasiva, teniéndose en cuenta la envergadura económica y comercial del proveedor.

  1. Protección del usuario de servicios financieros.

Se recomienda que los entes de contralor del sistema financiero cuenten con vías accesibles, gratuitas y eficaces de resolución de conflictos.

  1. Protección de los consumidores de crédito contra acciones de recupero abusivas:
    1. la vía reconocida por el artículo 39 de la Ley de prenda N° 12.962 resulta desplazada por colisionar con los principios fundamentales del derecho del consumo, por lo que no corresponde su planteo contra los consumidores de crédito.
    2. Resulta deseable una modificación legislativa que determine la prohibición expresa de los eventuales planteos de los secuestros prendarios contra los consumidores de crédito.
  2. Competencia en materia de consumo

A través de una interpretación sistémica y dialógica del ordenamiento normativo de protección del consumidor (arts. 3 y 36 de la Ley 24.240, arts. 1109, 1651 inc. c. y 2654 del CCCN, art. 5 de la Ley 26.993) la competencia en materia de consumo, se determina:

  1. Para el caso que el consumidor o usuario sea legitimado activo, a opción de este por: el lugar de consumo o uso; el de celebración del contrato; el domicilio del proveedor o prestador o citado en garantía; o el domicilio real del consumidor o usuario.
  2. Para el caso que el consumidor o usuario resulte legitimado pasivo la pauta de competencia está dada por su domicilio real.
  1. Mediación prejudicial obligatoria

En los ordenamientos jurídicos provinciales que exigen la mediación prejudicial obligatoria, no resultaría necesario recurrir a la misma si ya se concurrió al procedimiento administrativo de conciliación, ya que ambos métodos alternativos de solución de conflictos satisfacen el mismo objetivo cual es el de promover y desarrollar métodos no adversariales y desjudicializados de resolución de conflictos.

  1. Justicia gratuita

El beneficio de justicia gratuita del consumidor o usuario tanto para el ejercicio de acciones individuales como colectivas (art. 53 y 55 de la Ley 24.240) constituye una derivación del derecho fundamental a obtener procedimientos eficaces para la prevención y solución de conflictos (art. 42 C.N.). En otras palabras, dicho beneficio legal constituye una herramienta de implementación de derechos fundamentales.

Comisión N° 3: Precaución, prevención y punición de daños al consumidor

Presidentes: Dr. Gonzalo Sozzo y Dr. Rodrigo Cataldo

Coordinador: Dr. Rodolfo González Zavala

Secretarios: Dras. Verónica Tambascia y Julieta Trivisonno

Aspectos generales

1) El CCC al reestructurar la responsabilidad civil incorpora soluciones que, a través del diálogo de fuentes, enriquecen la tutela preventiva, resarcitoria y punitiva del consumidor.

Sanción pecuniaria disuasiva

2) La sanción pecuniaria disuasiva tiene una función de prevención y de punición, de acuerdo a las circunstancias del caso.

3) El grave menosprecio o el desmantelamiento del ilícito lucrativo constituyen alternativamente requisitos de procedencia de la sanción pecuniaria disuasiva, según que la función sea punición o prevención.

4) Se debatió la cuestión del destino que debe darse a la sanción. Por un lado, se sostuvo que el destino de la sanción debería ser mixto, dirigido en parte al consumidor y en parte a fondos especiales, sobre todo cuando se trate de daños a derechos de incidencia colectiva. Por otro lado, se sostuvo que la solución del art. 52bis incentiva a que el consumidor demande la sanción pecuniaria disuasiva.

Principio precautorio

5) El principio precautorio, a través del diálogo de fuentes, puede aplicarse a casos del Derecho del Consumidor si se dan sus presupuestos de procedencia (de lege lata).

6) En una futura reforma el principio precautorio debe incorporarse al Derecho del Consumidor (de lege ferenda).

Prevención

7) El art. 1710 inc. b del CCC complementa la obligación de seguridad hacia el consumidor.

8) En el marco del art. 1710 inc. B del CCC el incumplimiento del deber de prevención puede generar la obligación de resarcir daños al consumidor.

9) Las cargas probatorias dinámicas resultan aplicables a casos de prevención de daños a consumidores.

10) En los contratos de consumo que involucran derechos humanos la prevención del daño resulta prioritaria sobre la base del principio de dignidad del consumidor.

 

Call for Papers: 2018 Teaching Consumer Law Conference

Teaching Consumer Law Conference – Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18 & 19 May 2018

The Center for Consumer Law at the University of Houston Law Center, in cooperation with the University of New Mexico School of Law, is organizing its tenth biennial international teaching consumer law conference. The subject is “Teaching Consumer Law: Where Have We Been—Where Are We Going? The Conference will be held at the Hilton Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the “City Different,” one of the most interesting cities in the United States.

 

The Conference will focus on traditional issues of consumer law, in the context of significant changes in technology, privacy and social media. The Conference is directed at those currently teaching or interested in teaching consumer law at the law school or college level. A discussion of a few of our prior Conferences may be found at:

http://www.jtexconsumerlaw.com/V14N2/V14N2_Teaching.pdf

http://www.jtexconsumerlaw.com/V18N2/V18N2_Teaching.pdf

http://www.jtexconsumerlaw.com/V20N2/V20N2_Teaching17.pdf

The 2018 conference will deal with themes such as:

  • How might we integrate the increased use of social media into a consumer law course?
  • What innovations can or should we bring to the consumer law classroom to reflect popular culture?
  • Do we need more consumer regulation, or less?
  • What is the impact in the US of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and how do you teach about the CFPB?
  • Are there innovative ways to resolve consumer problems, other than the typical court and alternative dispute resolution systems?
  • How do we deal with intra-state and intra-national consumer transactions?
  • Is online dispute resolution good or bad?
  • How can we teach the multitude of subjects encompassed within the term “consumer law”? What should we emphasize? What should we delete?
  • International consumer law developments and innovations.
  • Recent developments in substantive US consumer law.
  • The view from the trenches—what do practicing attorneys see as the current consumer law issues.

Papers and presentations are invited on any of the above themes, or any other topic related to the teaching of consumer law. Proposed topics may discuss the law of any jurisdiction; however, the emphasis is on topics of interest to law school professors and those with an interest in entering academia.

Those who wish to submit a paper or presentation topic are invited to forward a proposal including a brief abstract of not longer than 400 words and contact information for the author. The proposals should be sent to Professor Richard M. Alderman at [email protected]. Proposals should be submitted no later than 15 January 2018. Authors will be promptly notified of acceptance. Final drafts of the papers that are to be included in the Conference materials are to be forwarded not later than the 1st of May 2018. The language of the conference is English. Conference registration fees will be waived for all presenters. Some scholarships are available for travel and room costs. Selected papers will be published in the Journal of Consumer and Commercial Law, http://www.jtexconsumerlaw.com.

I look forward to seeing you in Santa Fe next May.

Richard

CALL FOR PAPERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON CONSUMER LAW AND PRACTICE (IJCLP)

IJCLP is an annual peer reviewed journal which seeks to provide a forum for engaging in discussions on varied issues of National and International issues on Consumer Protection Laws. Following the third successful volume of the Journal and in continuance of the endeavor to encourage academic discourse and legal scholarship, the Board of Editors invites submissions for the fourth volume. The journal welcomes contributions from academicians, practitioners, students of law and allied fields.

IJCLP solicits submissions for its Volume VI to be launched in 2018. Authors can make submissions under the following heads:

  1. Articles and Research Papers (4,000-5,000 words inclusive of foot notes)
  2. Essay (3,000-4,000 words inclusive of foot notes)
  3. A Note (2,500 words inclusive of foot notes)
  4. A Case Comment, Legislative Briefs (2,500-3,000 words inclusive of foot notes )
  5. A Book Review ( 2,000 words inclusive of foot notes)

Authors can submit their written contribution addressed to Prof. (Dr.) Ashok R. Patil, Chief Editor, National Law School of India University, Bengaluru, Nagarbhavi Circle, Bengaluru 560072 and the same shall be e-mailed to [email protected] (MS word format) along with covering letter on or before 31st May 2018.

  1. Cover letter should include (i) Title of the Paper; (ii) Abstract (not exceeding 250 words); (iii) Name of the Author; (iv) Designation; (v) Institutional affiliation; (vi) Correspondence address. Co-authored papers should give full details about all the authors; (vii) along with CD
  2. Article should contain a disclaimer to the effect that the submitted paper is original and is not been published or under consideration for publication elsewhere.
  3. All citations shall be placed in footnotes and shall be in accordance with The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 19th Ed.
  4. All submissions will go through an initial round of review by the editorial board and the selected pieces will subsequently be sent for peer-review before finalization for publication.

******

Online Consumer Mediation Centre of the National Law School of India University

Understanding the need for non-adversarial conflict resolution in consumer disputes, the Chair on Consumer Law and Practice at NLSIU has for the first time in India, disembarked on a mission of setting up an Online Consumer Mediation Centre.  The initiative has been wholeheartedly supported by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Government of India. For more information, please see the brochure and video below:

OCMC brouchure

 

2nd International Conference on Dispute Resolution of Consumer Mass Disputes Collective Redress, Class Actions and ADR

The Faculty of Law at the University of Haifa will hold its second international conference on resolution of mass disputes on March 16th-17th, 2017. This second conference is organized jointly with the European Institute in Florence, and City University of Hong Kong, and focuses primarily on international consumer disputes. It hosts a number of distinguished scholars and practitioners from different jurisdictions, including Asia, Europe, the United Kingdom and the United States. Among the confirmed speakers are Professors John Coffee from Columbia Law School, Carrie Menkel-Meadow from UCI Law, Arthur Miller from NYU, Geraint Howells from City University of Hong Kong, Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz from the EUI, Diana Wallis former Vice President of the European Parliament and current president of the European Law Institute, and Adrian Zuckerman from the University of Oxford.

Faculty of Law, University of Haifa. March 16th-17th, 2017.

Amsterdam Conference July 2015

The theme of the 2015 International Association of Consumer Law conference was ‘virtues and consumer law’. The conference was hosted by the University of Amsterdam and took places in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The key question discussed during the conference was: what makes consumer protection law fit for consumers and businesses? This question was addressed from various angles, dealing with various virtues and their relation to consumer protection law.

The conference hosted 39 workshops (during 8 concurrent sessions) on themes such as Hope (in the era of a financial crisis), Fairness (against unfair commercial practices and against unfair terms), Compassion (in clinical trials and towards vulnerable consumers in financial sector), Forgiveness (through arbitration and ODR), Trust (through data protection) and Self-realization (in consumer contracts). Keynote speeches were held by, i.a., the late Norbert Reich (University of Bremen), Omri Ben-Shahar (University of Chicago), Carina Törnblom (European Commission), Verica Trstenjak (former Advocate General at the Court of Justice of the European Union) and Oren Bar-Gil (Harvard University).

The conference was attended by well over 200 participants –academics, consumer advocates, business representatives and lawyers – from all over the world. The conference was organized by prof. dr. Marco Loos, dr. Joasia Luzak and Sacha Tamboer, LLM.

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER LAW CONFERENCE (UPICLC) 2016

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER LAW CONFERENCE (UPICLC) 2016

20-22 September 2016

SECOND CALL FOR PAPERS

The Department of Mercantile Law at the University of Pretoria, South Africa will host an international consumer law conference that will focus on relevant developments internationally and nationally in the field of consumer law. The conference theme is “Towards Aligning Consumer Protection in a Global Consumer Market”. The following aspects of consumer law will be covered:

 The consumer in the financial market  The over-indebted consumer
 The consumer and defective goods
 The consumer and e-commerce

 The vulnerable consumer
 The consumer and unfair marketing and commercial practices  The consumer and disclosure
 The consumer and contract terms
 Access to redress for consumers
 Ensuring a fair and competitive market for consumers

Conference highlights include presentations by renowned international and national experts in consumer law as well as the opportunity to network with colleagues in the global consumer law arena.

Kindly submit your abstract of no more than 450 words to Jani van Wyk at [email protected]

For further detailed information regarding the conference, please visit our conference website at: http://www.up.ac.za/2016-upiclc

Warm Regards
Prof Corlia van Heerden Chairperson: UPICLC Committee Department of Mercantile Law Law Faculty
University of Pretoria

Important Dates:

1. Final abstract submission: 30 April 2016

2. Notification of abstract acceptance: 30 May 2016

3. Registration: 31 July 2016

4. Full paper submission deadline: 20 August 2016

5. Payment deadline: 31 August 2016

6. Cancellation deadline: 31 August 2016

7. Opening of Conference: 20 September 2016 University of Pretoria, Faculty of Law,
Foyer of the Law Building.

Towards a Common Private Law of Europe

Twenty years have already gone by since Part I of the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) was published and more than ten since the whole project was completed. The PECL, together with Law enacted by the European Union (and its predecessors) have fostered intense activity among scholars in respect of the so-called European Contract Law. A new ius commune in this field seems to be increasingly accepted across the continent and subsequent proposals on Uniform rules for Contract Law have attracted the attention of stakeholders. Among these projects are the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) or the Proposal for a Regulation on a Common European Sales Law (CESL).Great effort has been put into their preparation and also the analysis of their particular rules. The aforementioned proposals, however, still remain soft law with doubtful perspectives as regards enactment by the corresponding European institutions. At this stage, it is unclear whether the whole process of drafting uniform rules is still worthy to be pursued.

The conference aims to assess the current need for uniform rules in European Contract Law, taking into consideration its possible past benefits. The programme is structured according to the needs set out in the PECL: (i) the facilitation of cross-border trade within Europe and the strengthening of the internal market; (ii) the creation of an infrastructure for EU rules governing contracts; (iii) the provision of guidelines for national courts and legislatures; and (iv) the construction of a bridge between the Civil Law and the Common Law. These benefits were to a certain extent assumed by the subsequent projects and initiatives. The programme includes a fifth part which expects to analyse the influence of the European process on non-EU countries.The conference commemorates the 30th anniversary of the incorporation of the Kingdom of Spain in the EEC/EU and serves as the closing event for the Jean Monnet Module “Towards a Common Private Law of Europe”, granted to IE University.

For more information: http://www.jeanmonnet.privatelaw.ie.edu/conference/

Personal Insolvency Conference

Personal Insolvency Conference: 7-9 September 2016 – Brisbane Australia

Final date for submission of abstracts: 7 March 2016

In 2016, the Insolvency & Restructuring group within the Queensland

University of Technology’s Commercial and Property Law Research Centre

will be hosting their first international conference.  While the current

focus in much insolvency scholarship or commentary is upon salvaging

economic value for large businesses facing financial collapse, the harsh

reality is that many more people experience financial stress as

over-indebted consumers or Œowners¹ of micro/small/medium sized

enterprises.

The conference will provide a forum for scholars and policy-makers to

discuss and present on the human experience of bankruptcy.

Key note addresses will be delivered by Professor Jay L. Westbrook, Benno

C. Schmidt Chair of Business Law, The University of Texas at Austin, and

Professor Iain Ramsay, Professor of Law, University of Kent.

Themes to be discussed at the conference include:

– Fresh start: rhetoric or reality?

– Policy tensions: fresh start v commercial certainty

– Personal insolvency law reform

– Alternatives to bankruptcy

– Multi-disciplinary insights

– Comparative approaches

– Lenders¹ perspectives

– Human rights

– The health effects of over-indebtedness

Our themes are deliberately broad and we welcome abstracts from all

disciplines and areas of expertise examining issues surrounding natural

person insolvency.

Supporting URL

http://personalinsolvencyconference.com/